The EU-OPERRA SHAMISEN project started in December 2015, with the goal of producing a set of recommendations that would contribute to health surveillance and related communication with affected populations after nuclear accidents. The recommendations are based on reviews, carried out within the SHAMISEN project, of guidelines in existence at the time of the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents and of the actions which were taken, highlighting successes and limitations. The review includes case studies and lessons learnt from previous nuclear accidents, and summaries are provided as an Annex. The recommendations that aim at improving the health and living conditions of potentially affected populations, were presented during the ICRP/ERPW 2017 and are explained in terms of Why?, How? and Who? with colour coding according to topic.